May 2011 Entries
Welcoming Visual Basic Users to XNA

With the release of the Windows Phone Developer Tools 7.1 Beta, Visual Basic joins C# as a supported development language for XNA. I’ve been busily converting my samples to VB recently. They aren’t all done yet, but quite a few are (only three remain that I plan to convert). Rather than make anyone wait, I’ll share what I’ve completed so far and will add more when I have the remainder finished. Without further ado:

Content Pipeline Extension Sample: VB Source CodeRelated Blog Post

DragAndDropGame: VB Source CodeRelated Blog Post

CheckMemoryAllocationGame: VB Source CodeRelated Blog Post

RenderTarget2D Sample: VB Source CodeRelated Blog Post

Guest Account Sign In Utility: VB Source Code (There is no blog post for this tool; it allows you to get a Guest sign in on the Xbox 360 in order to check that you are properly handling guest accounts when purchasing games.)


As always, you can find all sample here: Except as otherwise specified, all source code is licensed under the terms of the Microsoft Public License (in this case, all of the samples above). Please feel free to ask me any questions here, on Twitter, or on the App Hub forums. I plan to make all future samples available in both languages at the same time. Welcome to XNA!

Posted On Tuesday, May 24, 2011 6:30 PM | Comments (0)
XNA Custom Content Pipeline Extensions Sample

For the longest time, the Content Pipeline was a magic transmogrification device to me. I would add content to a content project and it would get mystically turned into stuff I would load in my game with ContentManager. A few months ago I decided it was time to put an end to its magical aspects and learn how it worked and how I could put it to work. I thought it would be helpful to share what I learned so I created a sample. This sample has two different custom extensions. The first is a complete custom extension from importer to reader. The second is a processor that plugs in to an existing pipeline route.

It’s important to understand the path that content travels through. The Content Pipeline runs through each item of content and instantiates instances of the appropriate class and runs the appropriate methods for it. Here are the stages:

  1. Importer (Build-time)
  2. Processor (Build-time)
  3. Writer (Built-time)
  4. Reader (Run-time)

The Content Pipeline uses MSBuild (an XML-controlled build process that also builds your XNA game, other C# projects, and every other type of project you can “compile” in Visual Studio). MSBuild looks at the .contentproj file, examines the content items, reads in data about which importer and processor they should use and what parameter values should be set for the processor, and the proceeds to call the appropriate ContentImporter<T> class’s Import method. This reads the data in to the build-time model of the data type.

You will commonly find that Content Pipeline extensions (including all of the built-in ones that XNA provides) use a build-time model of the data which is a different class than the run-time model of the data. For instance, Texture2D is the run-time model of two dimensional texture data. Its build-time counterpart is Texture2DContent. Some data is represented with several build-time models. The Model class (for 3D models), is imported as NodeContent data (by the FBX and X importers) and then transformed by the content processor into ModelContent. NodeContent represents a raw version of the 3D content, with as little transformation as possible. The process of transforming data into something that can be used in-game should be left for the ContentProcessor<TInput,TOutput>. Sometimes this means that you import the data into one data structure (e.g. NodeContent) that fairly closely represents what the data coming in from the file looks like and then transform it into another data structure (e.g. ModelContent and the subclasses like MeshContent, MaterialContent, and all the MaterialContent-derived classes) in the processor(s).

Once the processing is done, the Content Pipeline sends the output of the ContentProcessor to its relevant ContentTypeWriter<T>. There can only ever be one ContentTypeWriter for a type. If you tried to implement a ContentTypeWriter for, e.g., Texture2DContent, you will get an InvalidOperationException since one already exists in the Content Pipeline assemblies. The ContentTypeWriter must do three things to be effective. It must override the GetRuntimeReader method, the GetRuntimeType method, and the Write method. GetRuntimeReader returns the assembly qualified name of the runtime reader and GetRuntimeType returns the assembly qualified name of the runtime type. You can read more about assembly qualified names here, but basically what you need is “MyNamespace.SomeClass, MyAssemblyName”. Commonly you would use a game library to hold the runtime reader and runtime type. By default, the assembly name and the namespace will be the same. So if you had a game library called MyLib and you had classes named GameDataReader and GameData in the root namespace of the library, then GetRuntimeReader would return “MyLib.GameDataReader, MyLib”, and GetRuntimeType would return “MyLib.GameData, MyLib”. ContentManager uses this information to invoke the specified reader when it comes across content of the specified type. The Write method uses a Content Pipeline-supplied ContentWriter (which derives from BinaryWriter, adding XNA-specific Write method overloads and other methods to it) to write out the XNB file. It’s up to you to write out everything you need to write in order to be able to read things in during the game. So for arrays, List<T>s, and other collection types, for instance, you want to write out their Length/Count property first so that you can read that in at runtime and know how many items of that type you must then read in. Anything you can think of a way to read in you can write out, so for the most part the only limitations are your own creativity. However you must make sure that your corresponding reader reads everything in exactly the same way that the writer writes things out otherwise you’ll get anything from data corruption/truncation to exceptions.

As mentioned above, the ContentTypeReader<T> is not a part of the Content Pipeline even though it is a mandatory part of a Content Pipeline extension that includes a custom ContentTypeWriter<T>. Instead it’s part of your game itself or, more commonly, part of a game library that you’ve created for that content type. Indeed, ContentTypeReader<T> is found in the Microsoft.Xna.Framework assembly rather than in one of the Content Pipeline’s assemblies since it must be capable of running on any supported XNA platform, not just on PC. There is no special attribute that needs to be applied to the ContentTypeReader<T>-derived class. ContentTypeWriter<T>’s GetRuntimeReader took care of specifying the class when the XNB file was built. Instead, ContentManager, when it receives a call to the Load<T> method requesting that it load data, will open the file, determine the appropriate reader(s) for the content, and proceed to instantiate instances of those readers and pass the opened file to its Read method(s), which then reads in the content to an instance of the class and returns that instance. That is the end of content’s journey through the Content Pipeline and the ContentManager into your game.

The sample has two Content Pipeline extensions, a game library, and a test game with some content processed by the extensions.

TextListContentPipelineExtension is a full extension, reading in a text file (see TextListContentImporter.cs) into a class (see TextListContent.cs) that contains a List<string>, performing some processing on the data that has been read in depending on the values of the processor parameters that have been added (see TextListContentProcessor.cs), writing it out (see TextListContentWriter.cs and TextListContent.cs), then reading it in during the game using the TextListLib game library project’s TextListReader class (see TextListReader.cs) to read it in to TextListLib’s TextList class (see TextList.cs).

TintTextureContentPipelineExtension is a partial extension. It extends TextureProcessor by overriding its Process method to add some additional manipulation options. Rather that try to recreate TextureContent’s Process method ourselves, we just override it and (when we’re done with our custom processing) turn the resulting data over to TextureProcessor’s Process method. Everything else (import, writing, and run-time reading) is done by the built-in classes and methods that XNA provides for processing texture data for use as Texture2D, etc. The code in this is fully-functional but fragile and easy to upset. While I ended up removing it to keep the project simple and focused, I did make use of Stephen Styrchak’s XNA Content Pipeline Debugging template (which I highly recommend as it allows you to do all sort of handy things like set breakpoints that will actually work in a content pipeline extension build process). It saved me from needing to do a lot of trial and error work for this project. And it’s available in all versions of Visual Studio 2010 (Express and Pro+, alike).

Important notes. To use your Content Pipeline extension projects, you need to add a reference to them to your XNA game’s Content project. Then you need to view the properties of the assets in question and, if necessary, set them to use your importers and processors. If you follow my advice and stick the run-time reader and run-time type into a game library, then you need to add a reference to that game library to your game’s references. As always, the code is heavily commented. If you follow the files in the order they are listed above (and then view Game1.cs in Test Game at the end), it should hopefully illustrate clearly the process of creating both a full and a partial extension. Also, while I only included a Windows test game, the extensions should work equally well with Xbox 360 and Windows Phone 7 projects. The code is licensed under the terms of the Microsoft Public License. You can download it here: Content Pipeline Extension Sample (XNA 4.0).

Important notes

Posted On Sunday, May 8, 2011 2:33 AM | Comments (0)
XNA and VB: The Preparations Continue

I posted a little while ago about how, with XNA and VB becoming a supported scenario, I was starting down the road to learning VB. Just a brief update on that. If you ever need to learn another language, having practical tasks is a huge benefit. Something I’ve been making use of is Project Euler. Writing the solutions in different ways to intentionally make use of certain syntax features has helped me both internalize them and understand them.

As a by-product, I managed to hack together a VB Windows XNA Game: . It works, but it’s very much a hack solution (literally editing the VBPROJ file by hand to add in the bits needed to get the content project working) and is missing many important features (like the ability to change between Reach and HiDef profiles, the ability to compile for any platform other than PC, etc.), so I’m not currently planning to post it. But it does indeed work and it was neat to see XNA in a different language. I’ll probably play around with it some more to see what else I can do with it. I might also use it to start converting some helpful code samples and snippets that are out there so that, when the time comes and XNA/VB is released, those’ll be all ready and waiting for you VB developers out there.


Looking through some comments to older posts on blogs I read, I noticed that it seems that XNA/VB will be released with the Mango Beta tools release sometime this month - (see Lisa Feigenbaum’s comment). Exciting times are at hand as the realm of DirectX-based managed code game programming comes full circle. I’ve already ported two code snippets I use and recommend a lot (Shawn’s frame rate counter and Stephen’s garbage-free integer drawing SpriteBatch extension (along with my own version of it for long ints)). I’ll be porting more code bits as steadily as I can manage and will begin releasing them shortly. More on that in another post, though. Just wanted to share the news about when it would be released.

Posted On Wednesday, May 4, 2011 12:08 PM | Comments (0)
Fake Anti Virus Software PSA: Win 7 Internet Security 2011 – Unregistred Version

Just had a stupid fake anti virus software program try to infect my computer. Two scary things about it; first, it tried to present itself as a legitimate operation by Microsoft trying to copy a file while browsing images of a band in Bing using IE9. I got the User Access Control (UAC) prompt (that thing that pops up and grays out the rest of your screen) twice. After telling it no twice, it crashed IE then presented itself not just as the fake anti virus software but also with its own fake “Action Center” window claiming that anti virus software was disabled on my computer.

I’m kind of annoyed that Microsoft Security Essentials (MSSE) didn’t pick up on it automatically as it was happening, but the instant I recognized it, I brought MSSE up and had it run a quick scan. It found and removed the fake software just fine. I’m going to run a full system scan now.

Anyway, if you see something calling itself “Win 7 Internet Security 2011 – Unregistred Version” (yes, that’s “Unregistred”) pop up on your screen, open your real antivirus software and set it to scanning your system. If you ever get an unexpected UAC prompt, no matter who it tells you is the company or what it tells you it wants to do, tell it no. The bogus software looked like this in my case:


If you see that or anything like it, leave it alone and run your real antivirus software. If you don’t have real, up-to-date antivirus software you are part of the problem; go get some now. MSSE is both good and free* and you can download it here: . (* You must be running a legitimate copy of Windows XP SP3, Windows Vista, or Windows 7 and otherwise meet the very minimal system requirements).

Posted On Sunday, May 1, 2011 2:10 AM | Comments (1)
Bob Taco Industries is an ISV focused on game and app development for Microsoft platforms headed up by Michael B. McLaughlin. Mike is a Microsoft Visual C++ MVP (previously an XNA/DirectX MVP from 2011-2013), a developer, a writer, a consultant, and a retired lawyer. If you're a developer who is just getting started, consider checking out the BTI website's section for developers for links to code samples and other helpful sites.
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