This second of three posts on Pair Programming. The first post described why pair programming is a good idea. I’m going to assume you’ve read that and now you want to start pair programming on your team.
Wanting to do pair programing and actually doing pair programming are two different things. It would be an over simplification to say that the way to start pair programming is to simply “start pairing”. Its like saying to lose weight, simply eat less and exercise more. There are usually other factors in play and it takes disciplined approach to get over the initial hurdle so that pairing is part of your routine.
Logistically, it does take a little bit of effort to plan a pairing session. A task to pair on must be identified, the two developers to be paired must be assigned, and a mutually acceptable time for the session must be planned.
Besides these logistics issues, there is cultural change that needs to occur. If you’re not doing pairing now, you’re probably in the habit where every developer comes in the morning, goes to their cube, and stays there silent for most of the day. They actively try to avoid interrupting their colleagues. They may believe that less talk and more person-hours typing is the key to productivity. These habits and attitudes need to be broken.
I’m going to describe three different approaches for getting over this initial hurdle and start to regularly pair. These approaches are: Shadowing, Stand-ups and Round Robin.
Before I get to the approaches, I’ll first talk about choosing a partner. If you want to skip over that section the TL;DR version is that any two developers should be able to successfully pair together. However, various types of pairing can lead to different dynamics. The Choose a Partner section describes the dynamics and benefits of each pairing type. If you have specific goals in mind, choosing the correct pair may be a factor.
Choose a Partner
In a typical, Complementary Pairing each person will give expertise in one area and receive training in another. Multiple skills are required to complete any task. The pair should complement each other whereby the weaknesses of one individual are the strengths of the other and vice versa.
For example when integrating a new DLL into an existing program the developer(s) working on the task must have some knowledge about the new DLL and some knowledge about the existing code base to be modified. A good pairing would be someone familiar with the existing code base paired with someone that has worked on (or with) the DLL before. The expert on the existing code base will get up to speed with the new DLL very quickly. The DLL expert gets exposure to other parts of the system. Also, the DLL expert increases their own expertise by receiving feedback on consumption of their DLL. This may lead to enhancements to the DLL or libraries that make it easier to consume in the future.
Expert-Novice pairings are usually done to train new employees. They are also very common in teams that have low bus numbers. It is best to work on tasks that aren’t too complicated so that the novice isn’t too overwhelmed and can is able to contribute some code. Obviously, in this scenario the novice benefits from the pairing session by receiving training. The expert also benefits because the simple act of tutoring often increases the expert’s expertise. The expert also gets an opportunity to work on their soft skills and team building.
Expert-Expert pairings are able to take on insanely difficult tasks. They can solve problems that would be too intimidating for a single person.
Novice-Novice pairings are beneficial even in the absence of an expert. Analogies to “the blind leading the blind” are a myth. Solo novices can often waste hours on little problems that can be easily solved by asking any other team member. Novice pairs spend far less time being stuck. If they both are stuck they are confident in knowing “it’s not them” and seek the help of an expert. Also novice pairing can be excellent for gaining confidence as at least one will have to pretend to be the expert.
Pairing does not have to be limited to new coding tasks. Maintenance or hot fix coding, working on support calls, R & D, design tasks, or most other development work can be paired on. Also tedious tasks can be occasionally paired on. You may think that every developer does this task every day and it only takes 5 minutes so it isn’t worth pairing on. Don’t assume everyone knows the fastest way to get something done. Other developers might be using tools that take them an order of magnitude faster or slower on the same task. Also tedious tasks are usually error prone and can often use an extra set of eyes.
It is best to rotate partners frequently. Don’t pair with the same person day in and day out. Switching partners frequently maximizes the spread of knowledge in the team.
Shadowing is where one person is assigned another. This approach is typically used with new hires. The new hire is assigned to another developer for mentoring. The new hire will learn everything they need to know about their new company by performing the daily tasks with a colleague.
Shadowing is probably the easiest approach to implement. There are fewer cultural barriers here. Even if your team doesn’t do pair programming currently, it probably still does one-on-one training for new hires. The new hire is also more open to new ideas; they don’t have any bad habits that need to be broken. If you tell them from day one that they are expected to work as a team they may actually do that as opposed to telling the same thing to an existing employee set in their ways.
The daily stand-up meeting is where each team member states what tasks they are working on an obstacles they are facing. The obstacles are usually something they need help with. If your not doing stand-ups then there is probably some other mechanism you have in place to keep in touch with your colleague’s daily tasks (kanban boards, chat rooms, daily reports, or various other dashboard tools).
These discussion forums give an opportunity to schedule pair programming sessions. If colleague is assigned a task you think you could help with, volunteer to pair on it. If you think you could benefit from someone else’s help on your task, ask for a pairing session. Just add a fourth question to your daily stand-up of “who can I pair with today?”
The last approach I’ll present for getting pairing sessions going is Round Robin. This a top down management mandate to force developers to give pairing a try. This approach doesn’t exactly fit with the typical grass roots capital-A Agile approaches teams usually prefer. However, sometimes an extreme approach like this can be effective at changing habits and trying new things.
This approach works best when you have a small team that should be cross-functional. This is where you want every team member to be familiar with all other aspects of the system.
Under this approach pair programming can be introduced slowly and be implemented on a trial basis. It lets sceptics see how pairing works, while giving them strict control of the hours dedicated to the experiment. It can start with only a couple 60-90 minute sessions per developer per week. As both developers and managers start seeing the benefits of the sessions, more can be added as needed.
This approach removes the demand on developers for asking to receive or volunteering to give help. This barrier is replaced with fixed assignments. The partners will be assigned each week. Assignments will be done in a round-robin that will be rotated each week. For example here is a monthly schedule of pairs for a team of 5 members.
|Task Owner ||Week 1 ||Week 2 ||Week 3 ||Week 4 |
|Alice ||Eric ||Dave ||Carol ||Bob |
|Bob ||Alice ||Eric ||Dave ||Carol |
|Carol ||Bob ||Alice ||Eric ||Dave |
|Dave ||Carol ||Bob ||Alice ||Eric |
|Eric ||Dave ||Carol ||Bob ||Alice |
During the first week Eric will spend 60-90 minutes at Alice’s desk working as a pair on one of Alice’s assigned tasks. Also, at a different time during the same week Alice will pair with Bob on one of Bob’s tasks. Therefore each developer participates in two pairing sessions per week.
The rotation schedule can accommodate a team of any size. If desired, a slot could be added for a “foreign exchange developer” to introduce a few cross-team sessions.
Team members are responsible for scheduling their own pairing sessions. Negotiation of this starts with the task owner suggesting a time to whoever is helping them that week. It is best to make the planning of the pairing session into a habit. Every Monday morning at 9:00 take 2 minutes to schedule the session.
Of course, contact between team members is not limited to these pairing sessions. Some tasks may benefit from a specific pairing. If that pairing is not on the schedule for weeks, don’t let that stop you. More pairing sessions can be added as needed.
In my next post I cover how to conduct a successful pair session.