XML Transformation: Xslt vs .NET. Part 1.

Part 1.
Part 2.
Part 3.

The Xml transformation is an important part of the system integration. The Xml documents are everywhere despite surging JSON.

When we need to transform [or map] one Xml document to another Xml, we have several options. Two of them prevail. The first is the Xslt language. The second is the object transformation.

Xslt Transformations

The Xslt language was created exactly for this purpose, to transform one Xml document to another Xml document. I am copying the Abstract of the Xslt standard here: 
“This specification defines the syntax and semantics of XSLT, which is a language for transforming XML documents into other XML documents...”

In reality to make the Xslt map we possibly need the XML Schema for source and target Xml documents. The XML Schemas are not mandatory but many Xslt editors use them to create Xslt maps. The BizTalk Server Mapper is such example.

The Xslt map is defined as the Xml document itself. The Xslt operators and expressions defined with help of the XPath, another Xml related standard.

Object Transformations

An Object transformation is a transformation, when Xml is converted to the object graph of any programming language like Java, or C#. Then objects mapped to other objects, which converted back to Xml. Those two conversions could be performed by XmlSerializer which is part of .NET. The mapping written and executed as the generic C# code.

The Object transformation is not an official term. Usually in development you see terms “mapping”, “transformation”, “converting”.


Theoretically, the more specialized tools should always beat the less specialized. The Xslt designed for exactly this purpose, so the question is how better is it? Transformation speed is the most important feature, so I tested the speed.

Test Project

The test project code is on the GitHub.

Tests have two parameters: the number of repetitions and the number of the nested objects.

The repetitions should stabilize the test measurements, make them statistically more correct. Number of the nested objects implicitly defines the size of the transformed Xml document.

Test Data

The test Xml document is created by XmlSerializer from the Person class.


There are two transformers:

  • XsltTransformer
  • NetTransformer

The XsltTransformer uses the PersonToEmployee.xsl and PersonToPerson.xsl Xslt stylesheets. If you want to use the third-party mappers to create or change the stylesheets, I have generated Xml schemas for you; they are in the XmlSchema.xsd file.

NetTransformer uses the same XmlSerializer. The transformation code is simple and boring, nothing to say about it.

The transformers do not try to produce the same transformations. Small differences in transformations don’t matter for our case.

Transformation and Enrichment

I have chosen two transformation types:

  • Enrichment, when the source and target Xml documents have the same schemas. It used to change content of the documents without changing the document structure.
  • Transformation, when the source and target Xml documents have different schemas. It creates a new target document using data of the source document. Target document has a schema, different from the source document schema.

For enrichment we operate with the same document structure, so theoretically enrichment should be simpler and faster.

How We Test

The test document created and tested for Xslt and Object transformations, and for both Enrichment and Transformation types. It is one test cycle.

A new test document created for each test cycle. This eliminates the possibility of the optimizations, which could be performed on the OS, the memory management level. The data for the test document created randomly by Randomizer class.

The test classes are initialized on the first cycle, so it takes much more time to perform the first test. I measure the maximum time, because it is important for the real life situation, when we need only one transformation.

To measure the average time the 5% of maximum and 5% of minimum values are removed from calculation.

I also measure the size of the transformed Xml document. It shows the importance of the spaces and new line symbols for the document size.

Note about Result Xml document

The sizes of the result Xml documents for Xslt and Object transformations should not be very different. Yes, you read me right. The result Xml documents should not be the same in each symbol for both transformations, and still documents can be recognized as equal. It is because of the ambiguity of the Xml standard. For example, the namespace prefixes could be different for the same namespace. In one result we can get “ns0:” prefix and the “abc12:” prefix in another, but both resolve the same namespace. As result the Xml documents got different size, but both are equal in terms of data values and structure. As result of this, we could not compare the Xml documents as the strings. We could converted Xml documents to the objects graph and compared the result object set. If all objects are equal, Xml documents are equal. I decided do not compare results because it is not the test goal. I just output the target Xml documents, so they could be easily compared, if needed.

Test Results


The result is surprising. 
The Object transformation won in both Transformation and Enrichment tests.

For this test the size of the Xml document was about 10K. I have change the size of the tested documents. When size grows, the difference between Xslt and Object transformations start to decrease. The average times were almost equal for the documents with 1M size.



It worth to mention the unstable result times. I write all measured times into Trace output.


As you can see, the measured times are stable but sometimes they grow significantly. Possibly, it is result of the garbage collection. Please, take this into account.

Practical Conclusions:

  • Xslt transformation is not faster than Object transformation, at last for the Xml documents smaller than 1M.
  • Object transformation significantly faster for Xml documents smaller than 100K.

Results are unexpected. Aren’t we the MythBusters :) ?

Is it worth to use Xslt, if we have a choice?

To use Xslt we have to study a new language, the Xslt. We have to study XPath, XML and maybe XML Schema standards. All this require time and effort. There are the special skills for testing and debugging Xslt code.

The Object transformation created in pure, generic programming languages. There is almost zero new knowledge we need to do it.

What about time spent on the creating transformations? There is not too much good Xslt mappers on market. The BizTalk Server Mapper one of the best. It is very performant in simple cases. But if there is a little bit more complexity, the mapper is not booster anymore but stopper. There are several books with tips and tricks how to do things with this Mapper. Are there such books for the Object mapping? Not sure they are, because the Object mapping is just generic programming, ABSOLUTELY NOTHING SPECIAL.

So, the conclusion is: use Xslt only for very, very, very good reason. Is it not faster at execution, It might be faster but without significant margin. It is not faster at development in most cases, especially if we claim all the time we spent on studying. Any programmer could develop Object transformations and only skilled Xslt developer could develop Xslt transformations.


Feel free to upgrade source code on GitHub. Please, report any issues and propose any ideas here.


The code is not optimized hence do not trust results! Arghhh...

[Update 2015-03-29]

I've added the tests for very small and very big XML documents. Results fit the above conclusions.

For tests for:    Document Size:
0 records                  0.5K
100,000 records  ~30M


Print | posted on Saturday, March 28, 2015 12:26 PM


# re: XML Transformation: Xslt vs .NET

left by Max Toro at 4/2/2015 5:32 PM Gravatar
Everytime you run a transformation your are compiling the XSLT stylesheet, instead of compiling once. On the other hand, your C# is compiled once, making the comparison unfair.

Call the XslCompiledTransform.Load method in the constructor of the XsltTransformer class, and you'll see very different results.

# re: XML Transformation: Xslt vs .NET

left by Leonid Ganeline at 4/2/2015 6:39 PM Gravatar
@Max Toro: You are right! My bad. I've changed the code and results are different. I will not change the original posts but added the Part 3 with details. It would be a good example, how small changes could change the whole pictures.
Thanks Max!

# re: XML Transformation: Xslt vs .NET. Part 1.

left by Michele at 4/5/2015 7:44 AM Gravatar
Such a mis-configuration of one of the sides of the benchmark is hardly "a small change"...
These numbers lose most of their meaning if the method is unfair.

# re: XML Transformation: Xslt vs .NET. Part 1.

left by Leonid Ganeline at 4/5/2015 8:31 PM Gravatar
@Michele: It is exactly "small changes". There were added two lines of code. :)
Unfair? See PPS.
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