January 2012 Entries
Enumerations And The CStr Function

Anyone who has worked with Visual Basic for any length of time should be familiar with the VB Type Conversion Functions like CBool, CInt, and CStr. These functions can provide a short and easy way to coerce the value of one type into another. I’ve been working with ~300,000 line VB .NET project for the past couple of years that is littered with calls to these functions. We never had any issues with them until we sat down to convert the project to C#.

Converting a 300,000 line project from VB .NET to C# is a pretty big undertaking and I plan on putting together a post-mortem at some point in the future, but I wanted to briefly outline one subtle issue we hit with the CStr function and enumerations.

Consider the following enumeration (declared in C#):

1 public enum ReviewStatus 2 { 3 NotStarted = 0, 4 InProgress, 5 Complete 6 }

Let’s say you want to use this enumeration in the query string of a web page that displays a report. In VB .NET you could easily use the CStr function to take an instance of the ReviewStatus enumeration and convert it to a string:

1 Dim selectedStatus As ReviewStatus = GetSelectedReviewStatus() 2 Request.QueryString.Add("reviewStatus", CStr(selectedReviewStatus))

This results in a URL that looks like:


When provided with a Numeric Data Type the CStr function will return a string representing the number. The use of CStr here makes me a bit nervous because it doesn’t provide any means of specifying an IFormatInfo, but if globalization isn’t a concern using CStr here is probably “good enough”.

When we set out to convert our project to C# we found dozens of places where we were using CStr to convert an enumeration into a string. Because there is no direct equivalent of CStr in C#, we opted to use ToString instead. The VB .NET code above turned into:

1 var selectedStatus = GetSelectedReviewStatus(); 2 Request.Querystring.Add("reviewStatus", selectedStatus.ToString());

At first we didn’t see any issues with this conversion until we started testing the application. We soon discovered that the URL in the converted C# project looked like this:


The code that consumes the ‘reviewStatus’ query string variable was expecting an integer that could be cast to the appropriate enumeration member was was throwing exceptions trying to parse the ‘InProgress’ value.

To resolve this issue, we ended up having to first cast the enumeration value to an integer and then calling ToString on the newly cast integer.

But What About Convert.ToString ?

If you search Google for the phrase, “CStr equivalent in C#” you’re likely to find forum posts indicating that Convert.ToString should be used in place of CStr. Convert.ToString might be an appropriate substitute for CStr in many instances, but using Convert.ToString on an enumeration in C# will yield the same result as .ToString’ing the enumeration value, and therefore didn’t help with our problem.

Posted On Tuesday, January 24, 2012 9:11 PM | Comments (0)
‘Content-Length’ Header Replaced With ‘Transfer-Encoding: chunked’ in ASP .NET

About a week ago we received a support call from one of our customers asking why she couldn’t open PDF files on our website anymore. She was using Chrome and the browser tab would just hang with the ‘Loading’ animation and a gray background after requesting an invoice PDF. After a little digging we figured out that this hang-up was occurring while Chrome was opening the PDF document. We were easily able to reproduce this issue ourselves in the production environment, but only while using Chrome. We were not, however, able to reproduce it in any of our QA / test environments. All environments are running the same version of ASP .NET (3.5) and IIS (7.5).

After trying dozens of different combinations of browser settings, PDF file sizes, and IIS settings, I finally noticed that the content-length header that we set explicitly before writing the PDF file bytes out the response stream was being replaced with a ‘transfer-encoding: chunked’ header in our production environment (but not in any of our QA environments). In some circumstances Chrome chokes on file downloads using the transfer-encoding: chunked header. Initial research into the issue yielded a post reporting that ASP .NET will set the transfer-encoding: chunked header for you when calling ‘Flush’ manually without explicitly setting a content-length header. Unfortunately for me we were explicitly setting the content-length header, so it was back to the drawing board.

After banging my head against the wall for a few hours comparing the raw IIS configuration XML between our QA and production servers I finally remembered that we had seen some very odd response related issues that stemmed from an HTTP Response Filter we were using on some pages. Sure enough, the filter was the cause of our issues in this instance as well.

The reason we were only seeing this issue in the production environment was that we use an HTTP Module to profile page requests. One of the things we measure is the size of the ‘viewstate’ field that is sent down for each request to detect pages that might be viewstate abusers. In order to track the size of the viewstate data sent down we attach a stream to the ‘Filter’ property of the HttpResponse that intercepts and records the value of the viewstate hidden field. Disabling this viewstate tracking filter for the page that generates and sends PDF files down to the browser resolved the issue. This module was enabled in our production environment but nowhere else.

It seems unlikely that anyone else will ever stumble across this same issue, but if I can save someone else a few hours of troubleshooting time with this blog post then it’ll be well worth the short time it took me to write this up. In summary, the following circumstances lead to the replacement of the content-length header with a transfer-encoding: chunked header:

  • Site is hosted on IIS 7.5 (I never tested this on IIS 7, though I do know that the Visual Studio development web server does NOT exhibit the same issue)
  • A stream is set on the ‘Filter’ property of the HttpResponse. What the filter actually does seems immaterial. I was able to reproduce the problem with a filter that simply passed the raw bytes through without modifying them at all.
  • A content-length header is explicitly set.
  • ‘Flush’ is called on the HttpResponse directly after writing some or all of the file contents to the response. (in our application we were calling Flush multiple times sending down about 1kb of data at a time as our files can be quite large sometimes.)
  • (Optional) Calling ‘End’ on the HttpResponse after sending all of the file contents. (This is not explicitly required for seeing the transfer-encoding: chunked header, but this does seem to be a requisite for having Chrome choke on opening the PDF.

I created a quick and dirty web forms app to reproduce the issue that you can grab on GitHub. I was also able to deploy and reproduce the same issue using this sample app on AppHarbor:

Posted On Monday, January 2, 2012 7:58 PM | Comments (0)
Tag Cloud